Impact testing systems examines the resistance that a particular product or material may have, and is one of the most important properties that go into the design and production of a wide variety of products and materials. It is a vital measure in the resilience of an object in the face a high strain test to determine the amount of energy absorbed by a material during a fracture. In metallurgy, toughness is the term used to describe the ability of a material to remain resilient without deforming and fracturing while absorbing energy, displaying a balance of strength and ductility.
The toughness of a product is exemplified in the stress-strain curve, the energy of mechanical deformation per unit volume prior to deformation and fracture.
The Charpy impact test, and the Izod impact strength test are the most widely used standardized impact test used to determine the resistance of materials.
The most widely used technologies in the field of impact testing includes various configurations of the Charpy and Izod impact tests and are conducted on materials ranging in size. The Charpy Impact Tests are conducted on machines ranging from less than 1 foot-pound to 300 foot-pounds at extreme temperature ranging from 320°F to over 2000°F. Configurations of the Charpy impact testing include V-Notch, U-Notch, Key-Hole Notch, ISO (DIN) V-Notch and Un-notched. Izod Impact testing can be done up to 240-foot pounds on a single notch and on the type-X3 notch.
Drop-Weight Testing is conducted to determine the NDT (Nil Ductility transition temperature) of materials. Dynamic Tear testing is used to examine the effects of metallurgical variables like composition, heat treatment, composition and other processing methods.
Two of the most well-known and widely used impact testers are Pendulum impact testers and Drop-Weight Impact Testing. Pendulum impact testing typically examines the toughness of smaller materials and appropriately uses a smaller amount of energy measured in joules to test the impact on a particular material. On the other hand, drop-weight impact testing is often used on larger objects and as a result deals higher amounts of energy to test toughness.
The pendulum impact tester is as its name states a pendulum, which lifts its mass as potential energy and is converted into kinetic energy by the mass while in a free fall towards the subject of the test. The flexure test (place where the object/material is being tested) is standardly used until the object or materials completely broken. Modern pendulum impact tests have accounted for thermal energy absorbed as it influences the test to a high degree. Ambient or operating temperatures as well as the temperature of the object itself are noted so as to account for this factor.
The drop-weight test, also known as the Pellini Test investigates and evaluates if standardized steel specimens impacted have a crack formation, or break. It was first developed by the Naval Research Laboratory in 1952 to examine conditions required for fractures to occur in structured steels. It is now used primarily to determine the Nil-ductility transition temperature (NDT) of ferritic steels (high chromium, magnetic stainless steels with low carbon content). Ferritic steels are commonly used in vehicle, kitchenware, and industrial equipment applications. The pellini test is subjected to a impact load at a progression of desired temperatures to examine when the test metal breaks at. The drop-weight test consists of beam specimens in accordance with ASTM E208 standard specifications to initiation the crack of the specimen in the desired area. The impact test is delivered by a free falling guided weight with an energy between 340 and 1630 joules.
GAOTek offers high quality, low cost impact testers. The build quality is such that would make it serviceable to the user for a long period of time while maintaining high performance and accuracy of intended measurements at a cost effective price unmatched by competitors. At the moment, GAOTek offers a single Pendulum impact tester, called Impact Tester with High Accuracy and Convenient operation. Some of the specifications on this impact tester include:
· Moment of pendulum: 0.258Nm
· Minimum degree value: 0.005J
· Impact speed: 2.9m/s
· Pendulum Pre0elevation: 160 degrees
· Pendulum shaft center to sample center distance: 8.70in (221mm)
· Jaw radius: 0.04in (1mm)
· Impact of the blade Angle: 30 degrees
· Impact of the blade radius: 0.08 inches (2mm)
Impact testing is comprehensive and is applied widely to a variety of plastics and metals. The amount of energy in impact testing is measured in joules, with drop weight testers measuring up to 100,000 joules while pendulum impact testers are generally applied to small materials and smaller measurements, measuring up to 450 joules of impact energy.
Ferritic steels is the common material of test used in drop weight testing, and are commonly used in vehicle, kitchenware, and industrial equipment applications.
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